Reported speech (mowa zależna)

Mowę zależną stosujemy, gdy chcemy zrelacjonować czyjąś wypowiedź. Wówczas nie stosujemy cudzysłowiu, a w relacjonowanym zdarzeniu często zmieniamy czas gramatyczny.

Jerry: „I’ve got a new car.”

Jerry said (that) he had a new car.

CIEKAWOSTKA: kiedy czasownik “have got” (brytyjska wersja “mieć”) zamieniamy z czasu Present Simple na Past Simple nie używamy słowa ”got” . Zostaje nam samo „had”.

JAK ZAMIENIAMY POSZCZEGÓLNE CZASY W MOWIE ZALEŻNEJ?

Zdania twierdzące + przeczenia

Present Simple -> Past Simple

George: I am at the cinema.

Kate: George said (that) he was at the cinema.

Present Continuous -> Past Continuous

Nate: I am not having lunch

Blair: Nate said (that) he wasn’t having lunch.

Past Simple -> Past Perfect

Serena: I was in the park last night.

Jenny: Serena said (that) she had been in the park last night.

Past Continuous -> Past Perfect Continuous

Chuck: I wasn’t driving home.

Daniel: Chuck said (that) he hadn’t been driving home.

Present Perfect -> Past Perfect

Anne: I have been to Paris.

Betty: Anne said (that) she had been to Paris.

Present Perfect Continuous -> Past Perfect Continuous

Audrey: I have been staring at “Breakfast at Tiffany’s”.

Merlin: Audrey said (that) she had been staring at “Breakfast at Tiffany’s”.

Konstrukcja “be going to” -> was/were going to

Natasha: I am going to book tickets for us.

Tom: Natasha said (that) she was going to book tickets for us.

ZMIANY CZASOWNIKÓW MODALNYCH:

will -> would

“I’ll be there at eight,” said Rod.

Rod said (that) he would be there at eight.

can -> could

“I can swim,” said Bob.

Bob said (that) he could swim.

 Must/have to -> had to

“I must go soon,” said Fiona.

Fiona said (that) she had to go soon.

 May -> might

“I may need some help,” said Tanya.

Tanya said (that) she might need some help.

ZMIANY ZAIMKÓW:

My -> his/her

“I’ll tidy my room later,” said George.

George said (that) he would tidy his room later.

This/that + rzeczownik -> the/that

 “I love this movie, “ said Angela.

Angela said (that) she loved the/that movie.

This/that + czasownik -> the /those

“That is fantastic!” said Steve.

Steve said (that) it was fantastic.

UWAGA: Gdy relacjonujemy czyjąś wypowiedź używamy formy zdania twierdzącego, nie dodajemy znaków zapytania czy wykrzykników.

 These/those +  rzeczownik -> the/those

“I am going to sell these old books,” said Mr Fisher.

Mr Fisher said (that) she was going to sell the/those old books.

 These/those + czasownik -> the/those

 “Those are fantastic!” said Steve.

Steve said (that) they were fantastic.

Czasownik + these/those (bez dopełnienia) -> them

„I’m going to Take these.” Said Courtney.

Courtney said (that) she was going to take them.

ZMIANY MIEJSC/CZASU

Here -> there

Aaron: I wish Jason was here

Barbra: Aaron said (that) he wished Jason was there.

Now/at the moment -> then/at that moment

Angela: I am doing it now.

Brittney: Angela  said (that) she was doing it at that moment/then.

Today -> that day

Jason: I will call Billy today.

Gertrude: Jason said (that) he would call Bill that day.

Tomorrow -> the following day/the next day

Greta: I will do it tomorrow.

Jane: Greta said she would do it the following day/the next day.

Tonight -> that night

Megan: I will go to the disco tonight.

Monica: Megan said she would go to the disco that night.

Next week/month/year -> the following week/month/year

Fred: I’ll see you next week.

Max: Fred said (that) he would see me the following week.

Yesterday -> the day before/the previous day

Lena: I passed my driving test yesterday.

Jenny: Lena said (that) she had passed her driving test the day before/the previous day.

Last week/month/year -> the previous week/month/year

“I went there last year,” said Gloria.

Gloria said (that) she had gone there the previous year.

Ago -> before

“I finished an hour ago,” said Francis.

Francis said (that) she had finished an hour before.

UWAGA: Jeżeli informacja, którą przekazujemy, jest nadal aktualna w momencie mówienia, nie zmieniamy czasów, ani wyrazów.

„I’ll See you all tonight,” Said Terry.

Terry said (that) she’ll see all of us tonight.

PYTANIA W MOWIE ZALEŻNEJ:

Pytania, na które odpowiedź może być tylko “tak” lub “nie”.

„Have you seen Pablo at the concert, Jake?”, asked Carl.

Carl asked Jake if/whether he had seen Pablo at the concert.

UWAGA: w pytaniach w mowie zależnej należy zwrócić uwagę na szyk zdania. W części po „if” lub „whether” zawsze występuje szyk zdania oznajmującego.

Pytania, które zaczynają się od “what”, ”who”, ”which”, ”when”, ”where”, ”why” oraz ”how”.

W tych pytaniach nigdy nie używamy „if” ani „whether”. Aby przekształcić takie pytania na mowę zależną musimy użyć tego samego słówka pytającego (what, who, itd.) oraz zmienić odpowiednio czas lub czasownik modalny.

„Why did you go there,”asked Alan.

Alan asked me why I had gone there.

RELACJONOWANIE CZASOWNIKÓW:

Czasowniki w języku angielskim przy zamienieniu na mowę zależną przybierają różne formy, np.:

deny: Sam denied the accusation.

say: When she said the answer, I knew she had won.

suggest: I suggested pizza for tonight

tell: I want you to tell the truth.

claim: Are you really claiming (that) you’re innocent?

state: He stated (that) it was the truth.

agree: They agreed to come on Thursday.

refuse: She refused to talk to anyone.

ask: Could you ask John to come in for a moment?

beg: I beg you to stop!

Command: I command you to stop!

order: I order you to be quiet!

apologise: Don’t forget to apologise to your mother for being late.

opracowała: Beata Cichy, 3h

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